The Confluence

Volume 1, Issue 1 (2021)

Welcome to Lindenwood University's Journal for Undergraduate Research

Lindenwood University sits on the hills overlooking the Missouri river only a few miles from the confluence of the Mississippi and Missouri rivers. The flow of ideas, student-centric learning, and community engagement through innovative, relevant, and forward-thinking academic and experiential programs began with the vision of Mary Sibley at our founding and continues its course today.

The Confluence began its life as a publication at Lindenwood College in 1969 as a creative writing journal featuring the work of Lindenwood students. In 2009, under the leadership of Dr. Jeff Smith, the Confluence shifted focus to American history, particularly Missouri history. It featured the work of some of the leading historians in the field.

Since early 2021, the Confluence has returned to its roots with a focus on undergraduate work and expanded that original vision by including research and creative works of all kinds produced by Lindenwood students. Our focus is to highlight the achievements and contributions Lindenwood undergraduates make to their fields. I am proud to serve as the Editor of the Confluence under the leadership of the Dean of the School of Arts and Humanities, Dr. Kathi Vosevich, and the Interim Provost/Vice President, Academic Affairs, Dr. Bethany Alden-Rivers and with the tireless dedication of the Editorial Review Board members.

This first issue of the Confluence, showcases the convergence of the best scholarly and creative work produced by our students and their faculty mentors. These works advance the on-going scholarly conversation to the benefit of each of their areas. In the midst of a global pandemic and an academic year unlike anything we have ever experienced, our students and faculty used this turbulence to overflow with creative solutions to continue scholarship at its finest. The works included in this issue demonstrates that commitment to success.

Allow me be the first to congratulate our students and faculty on the amazing work they do! I invite all Lindenwood undergraduates to submit their scholarly and creative works from every field for our next issue.

Dr. Nichole Torbitzky
Editor, the Confluence



The Effects of Mental Pacing on the Mile Run
Athena Viers, Maycee White, and Scott Richmond


The Lilith Challenge
Sarah Goldblum



Dr. Nichole Torbitzky, Lindenwood University

Editorial Review Board

Professsor Andrew Millians, College of Arts and Humanities

Dr. Gaurango Banerjee, Plaster College of Business and Entrepreneurship

Dr. Tonya Thompson, College of Education and Human Services

Dr. Kate Tessmer, College of Science, Technology and Health

Dr. Nicholas Wintz, College of Science Technology and Health

Dr. Megan Woltz, College of Science Technology and Health

Manuscript Editor

Dr.Sara Bagley, College of Science Technology and Health

Copy Editors

Dr. Susan Edele, College of Arts and Humanities

Laura Reilly, Writing Center Coordinator

Casey Freeman, Writing Specialist

Molly Hamilton, Writing Specialist

Gerred Zingale, Writing Specialist

Cover Art

Artist:Ta’tiana Alonzo

This project is one piece from a series of digital mixed media artworks. Alonzo's goal in creating this project was to further explore the collaboration of analog and digital art techniques by using acrylic paint and digital imaging. In complement of that, her intention was also to reflect her identity as a woman of color while communicating the connection between natural beauty and ethnic femininity. The project manifests as an intersection where my background in traditional visual arts and my studies at Lindenwood University in Art and Design come together.