Journal of Educational Leadership in Action


Supervision of secondary education in the 21st century has raised deep concern among relevant stakeholders in educational industry as decline in the quality of education in the nation’s school system could be attributed to ineffective supervision. Thus, the paper examined issues and challenges associated with supervision of secondary education in the 21st century. The concept of supervision was examined taking into cognizance the basic principles, types, purpose and supervision process consecutively. Specifically, various models such as integrative model, discrimination model and systems approach model of supervision were used to justify the importance of supervision. Issues and challenges facing the supervision of secondary education in Nigeria in the 21st century were equally overviewed meticulously. Also, measures for effective supervision in Nigerian secondary schools were elucidated consecutively. In view of the theoretical approach employed to explain the challenges of supervision in Nigerian secondary schools, it was concluded that for efficiency and effectiveness to be accomplished in Nigerian secondary schools, synergy must be established between the internal and external mechanisms in educational context. It was recommended among others that educational supervision should be redefined and earnestly undertaken either by appointed supervisors from the ministry of education or school based supervisors, professional accountability, values and standard required of teachers and educational supervisors should be appropriately recognized, well-defined, practiced and sustained, timely appraisal of supervisors’ reports should be effectively addressed to ensure effective learning and promote students’ cognitive growth.


Dr. Yusuf Suleiman is currently a Lecturer in the Department of Educational Management and Counselling, Faculty of Education, Al-Hikmah University, Kwara State, Nigeria. He obtained his PhD at the prestigious Universiti Utara Malaysia (An Eminent Management University). He has presented papers in Singapore, Malaysia, South Korea, Azerbaijan, South Korea and Ghana. He’s a member of Nigerian Institute of Management (NIM), Member of National Association of Educational Administration and Planning (NAEAP), Member of Commonwealth Council on Educational Management (CCEAM), Member of Malaysian Institute of Management (AMIM). He’s the founder and CEO of Yusa’ad Educational Services. Currently, he’s the Director of Centre for Research, Industrial Linkage and International Cooperation (CRIIC) and the Managing Editor of both Al-Hikmah Journal of Educational Management and Counselling (AJEMC) as well as International Journal of Advanced Research in Multidisciplinary Studies (CRIIC) in Al-Hikmah University, Nigeria.

Professor (Mrs.) Nike Yetunde Sidikat Ijaya is a renowned Professor of Educational Management. She obtained her M.Ed and PhD in United Kingdom. She is the immediate past Deputy Vice-Chancellor, University of Ilorin, Nigeria. She is the first female Professor in Kwara State, Nigeria. Her area of expertise includes supervision, childhood education among others. She has supervised more than 15 PhD students and over 50 M.Ed projects.

Mr. Mustapha Adam Ishola is currently a Doctoral Student in the Department of Educational Management, Faculty of Education, University of Ilorin, Nigeria.

Mr. Okwara Uche Joshua obtained his M.Ed. in the Department of Educational Management and Counselling, Faculty of Education, Al-Hikimah University, Ilorin, Kwara State.

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share Alike 4.0 International License.