Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education



First Advisor

Lynda Leavitt

Second Advisor

Jackie Ramey

Third Advisor

Wendy Freebersyser


Underserved minority students participating in Advanced Placement (AP) courses encountered increased academic pressures, in addition to inequitable conditions in education. The following study addressed inequity, as well as self-motivation, self-regulation, feedback practices, and student autonomy. The researcher implemented Visible Learning Feedback, an academic intervention, focused on bridging the gap in knowledge (Brooks et al., 2019; Hattie & Yates, 2014). Furthermore, the researcher designed a Motivational Interviewing (MI) pilot program, a client-centered approach concentrated on participant social-emotional well-being (Miller & Rollnick, 2013). The study’s purpose involved improving AP exam scores, increasing post-test essay grades, and raising self-motivation and self-regulation measurements through the Motivated Student Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ). Additionally, the study examined student perceptions of the interventions, self-motivation and self-regulation relating to the programs, and racial bias in feedback through feedback forms, interviews, MI conversations, and a feedback perceptions survey (Rowe & Wood, 2008. Quantitative results indicated little to no statistically significant increase in AP exam scores or self-motivation and self-regulation measurements; however, increased post-test essay scores demonstrated a large positive statistical difference and a high effect size for VLF. Qualitative results showed students perceived VLF as helpful and aiding in academic growth, and conclusively reported zero racial bias in feedback received in the APELC classroom. Furthermore, students articulated struggles, such as apathy, and successes, such as utilizing strategies for growth, with self-motivation and self-regulation regarding VLF. Participants viewed MI as also contributing to personal growth and as a personalized activity. Concerning self-motivation and self-regulation relating to MI, students perceived the intervention as an autonomy-building and identity-forging endeavor.

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