Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education



First Advisor

Tammy Moore

Second Advisor

Howard Fields III

Third Advisor

Jackie Ramey


This quantitative methods study identified and tested research-based constructs of school administrators’ race and gender compared to discipline, attendance, and academic achievement. This study aimed to address inequities in educational practices, policies, and systems that directly impact student academic success in schools. The quantitative analyses included statistical ANOVAs and t-tests that examined a convenience sample of 68 elementary school administrators' annual accountability data from 68 Missouri urban elementary schools. To determine differences between the gender and race of school administrators and discipline, attendance, and student proficiency, the researcher examined secondary data from the Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education (2022) from the 2016 through 2017 school year.

ANOVA Test analyses showed that there was a difference between student attendance for White Male and Black male, Black Female, and White Female Administrators, with White Male administrators having a significantly higher attendance rate. The results also revealed that White Male Below basic proficiency was significantly lower than Black Male, Black Female, and White Female Administrators.

The researcher ascertained that the literature review did not align with the findings from the ANOVAs and t-tests. The literature review revealed educational inequities that impacted annual accountability assessments and reports. Previous studies did not include the examination of elementary school leaders in Missouri's urban schools. The researcher recommended further research to examine differences in school administrators’ leadership style, educational equity, and teacher quality as synthesized in the study and their impact on discipline, attendance, and student achievement.

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