Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education



First Advisor

Dr. Kathy Grover

Second Advisor

Dr. Randy Caffey

Third Advisor

Dr. Merlyn Johnson


The rise in teacher attrition rates have been examined since the 1970s (Croasmun et al., 2000). Teachers have reported leaving the profession early due to many factors, including salaries, student discipline, administrative support, parental involvement, working conditions, and lack of professional respect (Cochran-Smith, 2004; Hughes, 2012). Teachers have felt unprepared in dealing with the high demands of teaching, especially in handling student discipline (Thibodeaux et al., 2015). Up to 35% of teachers have reported leaving the profession based on their difficulties with student discipline (Schonert-Reichl, 2017, para. 21; Schonert-Reichl et al., 2017, p. 18). The Collaboration for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning (CASEL) has identified social-emotional learning competencies for students in Pre- K through 12th grade with developmental benchmarks to assist teachers in addressing the social-emotional needs of students (2013). This study was conducted to see if a significant relationship existed among states with statewide freestanding comprehensive PreK-12th grade social-emotional learning standards and states without PreK-12th grade socialemotional learning standards concerning teachers’ perceived sense of self-efficacy, statewide teacher attrition, and statewide retention rates. Teacher attrition and retention ratings from the four Midwest states of Illinois, Kansas, Missouri, and Nebraska were analyzed, along with the Teachers’ Sense of Efficacy Scale from kindergarten through third-grade teachers in these states. The study revealed no significant difference between having social-emotional learning standards or not and statewide teacher attrition and retention rates. The study also showed no significant difference between having social-emotional learning standards or not and teachers’ sense of self-efficacy levels or in any efficacy subscale.


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