Date of Award

Spring 4-2014

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (EdD)



First Advisor

Dr. Lynda Leavitt

Second Advisor

Dr. Terry Stewart

Third Advisor

Dr. Jill Hutcheson


The purpose of this research study was to investigate how school districts, in the state of Missouri, dispersed funds from the American Recovery Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 to help drive educational reform, with respect to reading achievement and Response to Intervention strategies. The difference between the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act and other pieces of legislation aimed at educational accountability was that states were only given two years to spend the monies associated with this legislation. This quantitative research study examined 60 school districts in the state of Missouri to determine if there was a relationship between the stimulus funds provided for personnel, intervention support and professional development, and student achievement as measured by the MAP assessment. The researcher divided schools into strata of large and small districts based on enrollment of more than 3,000 students and fewer than 3,000 students respectively. Data collected included three ARRA budget codes (1100) for regular instruction, (2100) for non-instructional support, (2210) for professional development for the 2009-2010 and the 2010-2011 school years, as well as communication arts data from the MAP assessment. The literature review outlined legislation framed for educational accountability, changes in practice for students identified at-risk, and best practices in reading instruction. The researcher examined patterns in spending in non-instructional support and professional development to determine if school districts provided materials for intervention and professional development to support teachers in implementing the interventions. Using multiple iii regression data analysis, the researcher did not find any significant relationship between ARRA stimulus funds and student achievement as measured by the MAP assessment. Data indicated that additional funding was not the answer to improved student achievement.


Copyright 2014