Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts

First Advisor

Marilyn Patterson

Second Advisor

Pamela Nickels

Third Advisor

Becky McKenna


This study explores the relationship between an adolescent's gender, race, parental marital status, and the self-reported level of ritual in his or her family. Participants included 37 White, and African American youth from age 13 to 18, who were active in either a suburban church youth group or an urban community center. Each participant completed a demographic profile and the Family Routine Questionnaire. AT-Test and a chi-square were performed to compare a number of the independent variables (gender, race, and parental marital status) to the dependent questionnaire scores. The results of the T-Test indicate a statistically significant difference in the Total Setting Score based on race, and in the Ritual Meaning Score based on gender.