Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science



First Advisor

Scott Richmond

Second Advisor

Cynthia Schroeder

Third Advisor

Kathryn Tessmer


Synchronized swimming is a physically demanding sport that exposes the lower extremity to unusual forces. Currently, limited information exists that outlines the modifiable factors associated with knee pain experienced by synchronized swimmers.

PURPOSE: This study's aim was to identify the relationship between strength, mobility, movement quality, and pain in collegiate synchronized swimmers.

METHODS: Sixteen collegiate synchronized swimmers (mean ± SD, 20.5 ± l.8y; 165.8 ± 5.1cm; 63.8 ± 5.8kg) were tested. Hip musculature isometric strength was measured using an external force transducer. Hip mobility and Q-angle was assessed using a goniometer. Movement quality was deternined using the Functional Movement Screen (FMS). Lower extremity pain was assessed using the Knee Outcome Survey - Activities of Dai ly Living (KOS-ADL). Pearson correlation coefficients were used to deternine relationships among the measured variables. independent T-tests were used to assess differences in scores when comparing pain versus no pain.

RESULTS: Hip strength (ADDR) was negatively correlated with KOS-AOL (r = 0.488, p = 0.055). FMS score in the knee pain group was greater than the no pain group (p < 0.05). Hip mobility was greater in the pain group (p < 0.05), while hip strength was lower in the pain group (p < 0.05). Q-angle was not significantly different between groups (p > 0.05). Synchronized swimmers demonstrated above normal hip strength, while mobility and Q-angle values were found to be within normal ranges.

CONCLUSION: Synchronized swimming seems to demand above average hip musculature strength while favoring non hypermobile athletes. Knee pain is a multifactorial condition prevalent among synchronized swimmers. Future studies should investigate optimal mobility and movement quality as it relates to injury risk.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License

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