Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science in Administration

First Advisor

Daniel W. Kemper

Second Advisor

Earlene J. Hill

Third Advisor

Michael Kramer


This study presents a review of the current literature that pertains to the experiences of women in the male dominated working world. The specific focus of this study is the barriers that prevent women from advancing where men succeed.

When. women enter the workforce they tend to be naïve about the organizational culture that surrounds them. Women bring with them their natural feminine instincts and behaviors, which are not considered as valuable in the corporate world as male instincts and behaviors.

Because they are entering a "man's world," women are unaware of the subtle and underlying rules of the corporate game. They see men adapting easily and advancing for their efforts, while the women seem to lag behind as if they are carrying an additional burden each step of the way. At the core of that burden is the fact that women do not think, communicate, or behave like men. The burden is further compounded by society's ingrained perceptions and stereotypes of acceptable feminine behavior, which do not include leadership or effective management characteristics.

Although women have been welcomed into the workforce, they have not received equal pay, recognition, or opportunity for advancement as their male counterparts. Despite their efforts, the progress of women has been blocked by the "glass ceiling," an invisible barrier than keeps women from advancing where men of comparable skills and abilities succeed.

An abundance of researchers have examined a wide variety of issues relating to gender differences in the context of the work environment. The research confirms the hypothesis of this study: The glass ceiling has been constructed with perceptions and stereotypes of gender differences, preventing women from being accepted as equals in the male dominated business world.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License

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