Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts



First Advisor

Marilyn Patterson

Second Advisor

Anita Sankar

Third Advisor

Richard Etz


This study focuses on issues of spirituality and gender differences. The often interchanged terms of religion and spirituality are described, and the antagonism of science towards religion which has fostered a dearth of literature is reviewed. Implications for counseling are offered, and observations regarding gender differences are provided. The hypothesis that men and women do not differ on measures of spirituality is examined using the spiritual Well-Being Scale (Ellison & Paloutzian, 1983). Study participants were 45 males and 79 females from a church congregation of moderate Protestants. Results suggest that on measures of spiritual well-being, and on indices of religious involvement there are negligible differences between male and female congregants. Implications from the findings are discussed.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License