Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Art

First Advisor

Patrick Openlander

Second Advisor

Pamela Nickels

Third Advisor

Pam Moussette


The research question which will be discussed is smoking behavior in women who are participating in a treatment program for chemical dependency . The women subjects were between 18 and 40 years old . This study explored the relationship between smoking behaviors and substance abuse behaviors including alcohol usage . A sample, chosen at random, completed a personnel interview and a questionnaire. The research identified several areas that were similar between the smoking behavior and substance abuse. These areas included environment, personality, peer relationships and situational cues. The associated behaviors that began at the preadolescent age carried over into the subjects adult life. Seventy-two percent of the sample population began the smoking behavior between the ages of ten and fourteen. Sixty-four percent began alcohol usage and fifty-six percent began substance abuse between fourteen and seventeen. The research indicated that as the subjects attained the age of twenty-one, the usage o f alcohol was lower than at younger ages . From the research, it appears that the smoking behavior precedes the initial use of other substances .