The Confluence

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Inner experience of all 5 modalities were investigated to determine if there were correlations amongst them and how visual mental imagery and internal hearing were used in an applied story. Our sample (N = 137) completed the Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire (VVIQ; Marks, 1973) and the Plymouth Sensory Imagery Questionnaire (Psi-Q; Andrade et al., 2013) to obtain trait measures of the different modalities within the inner experience. Results showed statistically significant positive correlations between each of the trait measures of the 5 sensory modalities (visual mental imagery, inner hearing, taste, smell, and touch). Based on their VVIQ total scores, participants were grouped into 1 of 4 categories of visual mental imagery: aphantasia, low/moderate visual mental imagery, moderate/high visual mental imagery, and hyperphantasia. Based on groupings, participants reported how vividly they could visualize or how clearly they could hear a conversation. The 4 groups showed a stair-step pattern of usage from their trait groups. This displays not only strong relationships between the inner experience modalities, but also cross-over capabilities from visual mental imagery into the internal auditory usage. Applications range from understanding individual variability in educational settings, therapeutic realms, and high-performance disciplines like athletics.





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