The Confluence

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Background information on viruses is first presented which include topics like evolution, ecology, history, identification, structure, and application. The novel SARS-CoV-2, which causes COVID-19, pandemic originated in Wuhan, China in December 2019. Millions of people were infected with the virus in a short time period causing urgent concern worldwide. The purpose of this review is to provide a brief and general understanding of the SARS-CoV-2 to increase awareness and actions toward preventive measures. COVID-19 is a (+) ssRNA spherical enveloped virion that causes primarily respiratory illnesses. The S protein interacts with ACE-2 receptors on the host cell to gain entry and uses the cell’s machinery to achieve replication and release. COVID-19 is transmitted by inhalation of infected droplets and aerosols. Asymptomatic individuals are still able to pass the infectious disease where careful evaluations are needed to prevent superspreading events. Face masks are necessary form of interventions to reduce direct human to human transmissions. The transition from local endemic to worldwide pandemic was rapid and profound. A better understanding and knowledge of viruses, and more specifically COVID-19, among the population will reduce transmissions and the prolonged pandemic. Global and community efforts are necessary for individuals of varying age, sex, and health since they are affected in different ways by the COVID-19 virus. In a world of infectious diseases and novel emergences, new treatments and medical interventions is an urgent initiative in combating pathogens like the SARS-CoV-2.





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