Undergraduate Psychology Research Methods Journal


This study looked at both the relationship between a persons’ punctuality and their perception of time passing and the correlation between a persons’ punctuality and their optimism level. Punctuality was measured in two different ways: when the participant arrived to the scheduled study slot and then again when they took a punctuality survey. I measured the participants’ perception of time by having them estimate when two minutes had passed while completing a Sudoku puzzle. The point of time when they thought 2 min had passed was compared to the actual amount of time that passed. The puzzle assured that the participants were not keeping track of time in their heads but rather rely on their own perception of time. Optimism was measured by the Revised Life Orientation Test by Scheier, Carver, and Bridges (1994). It was predicted that people who are more punctual will underestimate the amount of time that has passed whereas those who are not punctual will overestimate the amount of time that has passed. I ran a chi-square analysis and found no significant relationship between punctuality and time perception. Based on natural groups of punctuality, participants were grouped by whether they were punctual (i.e., early or on-time) versus unpunctual (i.e., late). It was expected that those in the unpunctual group will be more optimistic but my results showed no significance in optimism and punctuality.

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share Alike 4.0 International License.

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