Journal of International and Global Studies


Change in Myanmar came from above, below, within, abroad, and the fore. This précis of Pathways That Changed Myanmar explains how a multidimensional understanding of change in Myanmar can help to explain the military junta’s decision to move towards a pacted transition. Subversion and creation at the grassroots level transformed the distribution of opportunities, leverage, power, incentives, and influences, as did the global effort to name, shame, and sanction the regime. Decades of contention from the National League for Democracy and many ethnic political groups, in combination with the impact of the Third Force, a network that sought to engage the regime even at the highest ranks, made space for a civilian parliament. At the grassroots level and in elite political circles, the efforts of those seeking change in Myanmar combined to transform the environment and conditions of governance, culminating a situation in which junta leadership in Naypyidaw had to make a move.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share Alike 4.0 International License.