Journal of International and Global Studies


This paper aims to identify similarities and differences in the attitudes and traits of entrepreneurs in four countries, Japan and three Mediterranean countries, and it analyzes how cultural diversity can influence business and entrepreneurial experience. To this end, two questionnaires were completed by entrepreneurs of 188 small businesses in Japan, Italy, Spain and Portugal at a time when all these countries had been hit by the global economic crisis. The indices of the Hofstede dimensions were obtained from the VSM 94 questionnaire. The second open-ended questionnaire adds information about each case in the field of entrepreneurship. The qualitative case analysis shows a relationship between the cultural values of the countries and the traits and attitudes of entrepreneurs. The findings indicate that perseverance and tenacity traits emerge in times of economic crisis as values in entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurial motivation in Japanese society addresses personal achievement, while it seeks independence in the Mediterranean cultures. The index of individualism takes high values in the four countries. This supports the theory associating this dimension with the traits of creativity and achievement.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share Alike 4.0 International License.