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Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance


This study evaluated the influence of novel beverage formulations on bioimpedance- and urine-based hydration markers. Thirty young healthy adults (n=16 females, n=14 males; age: 23.2±3.7 years; BMI: 24.3±3.3 kg/m2 ) participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Participants completed three conditions with baseline bioimpedance, urine, and body mass assessments, followed by ingestion of one liter of a test beverage over a 30-minute period. The three beverages were: active hydration formulation in still (AFstill) or sparkling (AFspark) water and a still water control. The active formulations were identical in concentrations of alpha-cyclodextrin and complexing agents. Following beverage ingestion, bioimpedance assessments were performed every 15 minutes for two hours, followed by final urinary and body mass assessments. The primary bioimpedance outcomes were phase angle at 50 kHz, resistance of the extracellular compartment (R0), and resistance of the intracellular compartment (Ri). Data were analyzed using linear mixed effects models, Friedman tests, and Wilcoxon tests. Statistically significant changes in phase angle values were observed at 30 (p=0.004) and 45 minutes (p=0.024) following the initiation of beverage ingestion in the AFstill condition as compared to the reference model (i.e., control condition at baseline). Although differences between conditions were not statistically significant at later time points, the data were consistent with AFstill having greater elevations in phase angle throughout the monitoring period. At the 30-minute time point only, statistically significant differences in R0 for AFspark (p<0.001) and in Ri for AFstill (p=0.008) were observed. When averaged across post-ingestion time points, there was a trend (p=0.08) for Ri differences between conditions. The net fluid balance was greater than zero, indicating retention of ingested fluid, for AFstill (p=0.02) and control (p=0.03), with a trend for AFspark (p=0.06). In conclusion, an active formulation containing alpha-cyclodextrin in still water demonstrated potential benefits for enhancing hydration markers in humans.


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Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License

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