Date of Award

Summer 6-2020

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (EdD)



First Advisor

Dr. Robyne Elder

Second Advisor

Dr. Kevin Winslow

Third Advisor

Dr. Robert Steffes


Efficacy is thought to be one of the most influential factors in student achievement however, there appears to be little research on how efficacy and years of service are related. Research which does investigate this area mainly focused on preservice and teachers who are starting their careers. This mixed-methods study was designed to determine if there was a correlation between years of service and collective and self-efficacy as well as gain insights into teachers’ perceptions of both collective and self-efficacy. Results of the study found self-efficacy followed an arc pattern, starting out low then rising to its peak for teachers in the middle of their careers, then dropping off again as teachers’ neared retirement. Collective efficacy, alternatively, started out low, rose, then dipped, rose again, only to dip again near retirement. Although there was a relationship between collective and self-efficacy for teachers in stage one of their careers, a relationship was not found between collective and self-efficacy for other stages of a teacher’s career. Results from a short-answer survey found barriers to efficacy included being closed minded and an unwillingness to try new teaching methods, where keeping an open mind and a willingness to learn and grow helped overcome those barriers. As districts continue to try to find ways to increase student achievement it would be beneficial for school leadership to determine the efficacy of their staff and find ways to increase both collective and self-efficacy.


Copyright 2020