Date of Award

Fall 9-2018

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (EdD)



First Advisor

Dr. Lynda Leavitt

Second Advisor

Dr. Carrie Schwierjohn

Third Advisor

Dr. Kevin Winslow


Early identification and intervention for struggling readers increased the likelihood of students identified as proficient; ultimately leading to future success. The researcher sought to evaluate the Leveled Literacy Intervention (LLI) program in a Midwest urban school district, to help close the achievement gap between students’ reading levels and students reading on grade level. The purpose of the study was to investigate the difference in STAR reading scaled scores between struggling 2nd grade students who received LLI and peers who did not receive LLI. The researcher also examined the possible relationship between the increase in students’ literacy skills and fidelity of implementation of LLI. Finally, the researcher examined the perception of LLI teachers and School Leadership Team (SLT) members on the implementation of LLI. The researcher selected a mixed-methods approach and analyzed qualitative and quantitative data, including LLI teacher survey data, LLI teacher and SLT member interview responses, fidelity of implementation tool, and pre- and post-STAR reading scaled scores to determine a possible increase in struggling students’ literacy skills. The results of the study showed no statistical difference between the LLI students and the non-LLI students. Furthermore, the study indicated no relationship existed between student outcomes and fidelity of implementation. However, the study revealed teachers who implemented LLI with fidelity, LLI teachers, and SLT members believed students’ literacy skills improved. As a result, the researcher recommended further studies on the implementation of LLI in urban settings.


Copyright 2018